This book discusses policy strategies for the effective management of natural resources in Africa within the context of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). While natural resource wealth has the potential to lift many out of poverty, sustain economic growth, and foster political stability, it does not guarantee these benefits. The absolute levels of human development in many resource-rich countries remain low, despite their apparent wealth. The challenge is to adopt policies that better harness the potential of natural resources, not only as an opportunity for development, but also to foster policies and institutional innovations that manage resource wealth equitably and boost human capital. To this end, this volume highlights key opportunities and solutions for harnessing natural resources for sustained economic development and explain how such approaches should be incorporated into the SDG agenda. These opportunities are communicated in the form of policy recommendations that in some cases, are country specific but can (and should) be adapted by individual African countries where applicable. With a broad perspective supplied by a diverse group of authors, this book will be useful for graduate students and academicians studying Africa, development economics, economic policy, and resource management, as well as policy makers, NGOs, and IGOs.